The dramatic story of the Crusades seen through Arab eyes, from the seizing of Jerusalem under Pope Urban II in 1099 to its recapture by Salah Ed-Din, Richard the Lionheart’s efforts to regain the city and the end of the movement two centuries later. Episode One of Four explores the reasons for the Crusades, centred on Jerusalem, the holy city for Christians, Jews and Muslims. In the late eleventh century, the Byzantine Empire was in trouble with the Turks in control of their territories in the east - including Palestine and Jerusalem - and threatening Constantinople itself. The Christian emperor of Byzantium asked the Pope for help and Urban II saw the opportunity to extend the power of the Church across Europe to Palestine. He called for a holy war against Muslim forces in the Holy Land. The result was the First Crusade which captured Jerusalem and created the three kingdoms of Antioch, Tripoli and Edessa.